Asphyxia, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and urogenital abnormalities are major causes of infant acute kidney damage (AKI) in the neonatal critical care unit. This research examines the incidence and risk factors of acute kidney injury (AKI) in newborns admitted to the NICU from September 2022 to March 2023.
Method: A prospective study was conducted to evaluate neonates with AKI who had been hospitalised in Babylon teaching hospital for maternity and children. Information such as gender, gestational age, body weight, age at presentation, predisposing factors, duration of hospitalisation, and type of treatment, whether conservative or requiring renal replacement therapy such as peritoneal dialysis, were all included in the study.
Results: The male-to-female ratio among ARF patients was 1.68:1. Renal, pre-renal, and post-renal causes of ARF were 37 (49%), 23 (31%), and 15 (20%), respectively, in term 58 (77%) and preterm 14 (19%) and postterm 3 (4%). Sepsis 42 (56%), genitourinary abnormalities 15 (20%), perinatal asphyxia 5 (6.67%), RDS 3 (4%), and other causes 10 (13.33%) were the most prevalent ARF predisposing variables. 44 (58.67%) of hospitalised neonates with ARF discharged well, 17 (22.67%) with impaired renal function, 10 (13.33%) died, and 4 (5.33%) were sent to other hospitals. Sepsis was substantially greater.
Conclusion: Neonatal acute renal insufficiency is severe. Our hospital's newborn acute renal failure frequency, contributory factors, and short-term prognosis are similar to previous research, however intrinsic kidney failure is the most prevalent kind. Sepsis is the leading cause of neonatal acute renal failure and mortality.