Diabetes is a common metabolic disorder complicating pregnancy in India. Babies born to diabetic mothers are at increased risk of neonatal complications as well as long term complications with potential of developing type 2 DM in future.
Methods: A large prospective study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital in Goa for a period of 18 months (2014-2016) to study the outcomes among neonates born to mothers with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM).
Results: Clinical outcomes of neonates born to 424 mothers with GDM were studied and compared with 424 neonates born to mothers without GDM during the same time period. The mean birth weight of neonates born to GDM mothers was 3.17 kg. Macrosomia was found among 1.2% neonates born to GDM mothers. There was no significant difference in Apgar scores at 5 minutes of birth in GDM and non-GDM groups. The rate of admissions to Neonatal Care Unit was significantly higher (32.1%) in neonates born to GDM mother as compared to non-GDM group. Incidence of neonatal complications like respiratory distress syndrome (4.2%) and hypoglycaemia (11%) was significantly higher in neonates born to GDM mothers. There was a significant increase noted in neonatal mortality (3.3%) in the GDM group.
Conclusion: Numerous complications are reported among neonates born to mothers with GDM. Hence these mothers with GDM should be delivered in tertiary care centre or district hospitals where fully staffed and well equipped neonatal intensive care units are available for management of these complications.