International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics

International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics

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International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics

2019, Vol. 2, Issue 2, Part A

A study on prevalence and factors associated with protein energy malnutrition among 1-5 years of childrens: A cross sectional study
Author(s)
Dr. Ravikanth Kasaraneni and Raga Deepthi Paladugu
Abstract
Background: Malnutrition is a major health problem, especially in developing countries. It affects almost 800 million people. Prevalence rates vary among different continents of the world. PEM is undoubtedly the most serious nutritional problem affecting several thousand young children in India. Objective: To find the prevalence of Protein energy malnutrition between urban and rural areas to study the factors associated with PEM among children of age 1 5 years in Guntur District. Study design: Cross-sectional study carried out during 01 Jan 2018 to 31 Dec 2018 in the Department of Paediatrics, KATURI Medical College & Hospital, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India. Comprised children of age group 1 5 years and total of 180 included in this study. Method of Collection of Data: The instrument used is a predesigned and pretested semi structured questionnaire. Physical measurements such as height and weight measured using standard methods. Statistical Analysis: Proportion, Chi square test, Independent t test. Results: The prevalence of Protein energy malnutrition is 67.7% (122). The prevalence of PEM is high among rural children (71.1%) compared to urban children (64.4%) and this difference is found to be statistically significant. Many preventable variables are found to be significant associates of Protein energy malnutrition. Study subjects included were both boys and girls, boys constituted 43.3% (78) and girls 56.7% (102). Each Urban and rural area constituted 50% i.e urban 50%(90) and rural 50% (90). Among 180 study subjects, 70% of children have MAC more than 13.5cms and 22.3% of children have MAC between 12.5 cms and13.5 cms whereas only 7% of children have MAC less than 12.5%. Mean weight was more among urban children(10.86) compared to rural children(9.54) and also mean height was higher among urban children(84.98) than rural children(81.69).The prevalence of Protein energy malnutrition is 67.7% (122).The prevalence of PEM is high among rural children (71.1%) compared to urban children (64.4%).36% of study subjects have Grade I PEM followed by Grade II (24.6%), Grade III (21.4%) and Grade IV (18.0%).Among urban children Grade I(43.1%) is common whereas among rural children, Grade II and III are common. The prevalence of PEM is high in 2 3 years of age group (97.9%). The prevalence of PEM is more among boys (74.3%) compared to girls (62.7%). The prevalence of PEM is more among Hindus (78.9%) compared to Muslims (48.2%). The prevalence of PEM is high among the subjects who belong to family size more than five (72.1%). The prevalence of PEM is high among socioeconomic class IV (82.5%). The prevalence of PEM is high among those study subjects whose fathers are illiterates (76.9%). The prevalence of PEM is high among those study subjects whose mothers are educated up to primary (75.0%). The prevalence is found to be high in those students whose fathers are unemployed (50.0%) /unskilled (69.6%) /semiskilled (68.6%). The prevalence is found to be high in those students whose mothers are unemployed (68.4%) /unskilled (71.2%) /semiskilled (33.3%).The prevalence of PEM is high among study subjects of Nuclear family (76.3%). The prevalence of PEM is more among study subjects mother who had ANC visits of less than 6 (around 80%). There is no statistical difference in prevalence of PEM among study subjects based on mode of delivery. The prevalence of PEM is more among birth weight less than 2.5 kgs (85.4%). The prevalence of PEM is more among study subjects mother who had initiated breast feeding after four hours (85%).The prevalence of PEM is more among study subjects mother who had not fed colostrum (78.5%).The prevalence of PEM is high among non exclusive breast feeding (71%).Housing conditions revealed that prevalence of PEM is more among semi puccka house (73.0%), in adequate ventilation (73.8%), overcrowding (77.2%) and solid fuel user (74.0%). Conclusion: Since it is a cross sectional study, no causal relationships can be established from this study. Dietary intake was assessed by 24-hour recall basis method and application of better and elaborate methods of dietary intake assessment was beyond the scope of the study.
Pages: 28-38 | Views: 403 | Downloads: 222
How to cite this article:
Dr. Ravikanth Kasaraneni and Raga Deepthi Paladugu. A study on prevalence and factors associated with protein energy malnutrition among 1-5 years of childrens: A cross sectional study. International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics. 2019; 2(2): 28-38. DOI: 10.33545/26643685.2019.v2.i2a.31
International Journal of Paediatrics and Geriatrics